Azure File Storage is basically a SMB 3.0 file share. Each time a VM needs a file share, you can use your storage account to create one. There is one limitation for Linux VM: for lack of encryption in kernel CIFS implementation, Linux VM must colocate with the file share in the same Azure region. Thus, for now Kubernetes hosts must live in Azure Computing VMs to access their Azure file share.
It is also possible to use Azure Block Blob storage for Kubernetes, though that’ll require more efforts and new APIs from Azure.